The Tower of London: A 2000 Year History

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Curry and M. Heslop and Helen E. Allen, Castles, conquest and charters: collected papers Woodbridge: Boydell Press p. Allen, , 'Architectural description' Brown, R. Allen and Taylor, A.

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Mackenzie, J. That Is the Question. Allen, , Castles, conquest and charters: collected papers Woodbridge: Boydell Press p. Post-Conquest' Medieval Archaeology Vol. Allen and Curnow, P.

Tower of London - The Great Castle that Changed the World - History Documentary

Hearne, T. Harleian MS.

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The information within this site is provided freely for educational purposes only. The bibliography owes much to various bibliographies produced by John Kenyon for the Council for British Archaeology , the Castle Studies Group and others. Minor archaeological investigations, such as watching brief reports, and some other 'grey' literature is most likely to be held by H.

The possible site or monument is represented on maps as a point location. This is a guide only.

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It should be noted that OS grid references defines an area, not a point location. In practice this means the actual center of the site or monument may often, but not always, be to the North East of the point shown. Locations derived from OS grid references and from latitude longitiude may differ by a small distance. Further information on mapping and location can be seen at this link. Then in Civil War began between king and parliament. The royalists made one attempt to capture London in but their army was met 6 miles west of St Pauls by a much larger parliamentary army.

The royalists withdrew. However the Puritan government of was hated by many ordinary people and when Charles II came to London from France in an estimated 20, people gathered in the streets to meet him.

All the churches in London rang their bells. The last outbreak of plague in London was in But this was the last outbreak. In came the great fire of London.

It began on 2 September in a baker's house. At first, it did not cause undue alarm. But the wind caused the flames to spread rapidly. People formed chains with leather buckets and worked hand operated pumps all to no avail. The mayor was advised to use gunpowder to create fire breaks but he was reluctant, fearing the owners of destroyed buildings would sue for compensation. The fire continued to spread until the king took charge. He ordered sailors to make fire breaks. At the same time, the wind dropped. About 13, houses had been destroyed and , people had been made homeless.

The king ordered the navy to make tents and canvas available from their stores to help the homeless who camped on open spaces around the city. Temporary markets were set up so the homeless could buy food.

A History of London

Most of the houses in London were still standing and many of the homeless found accommodation in them or in nearby villages. Others built wooden huts on the charred ruins. To prevent such a disaster happening again the king commanded that all new houses in London should be of stone and brick not wood. Citizens were responsible for rebuilding their own houses but a tax was charged on coal brought by ship into London to finance the rebuilding of churches and other public buildings. Work began on rebuilding St Pauls in but it was not finished till In the late 17th century fashionable houses were built at Bloomsbury and on the road to the village of Knightsbridge.

Elegant houses in squares and broad straight streets were also built north of St James Palace. Soho also became built up. As well as building attractive suburbs the rich began to live in attractive villages near London such as Hackney, Clapham, Camberwell and Streatham. In the east, the poor continued to build houses and Bethnal Green was 'swallowed up' by the growing city.

French Protestants fleeing religious persecution arrived in London. Many of them were silk weavers who lived in Spitalfields which also became a suburb of London. In the 17th century wealthy Londoners obtained piped water for the first time. It was brought by canal from the countryside then was carried by hollow tree trunks under the streets. You had to pay to have your house connected. After oil lamps lighted the streets. Hackney carriages became common in the streets of London. In the Bank of England was formed. It moved to Threadneedle Street in Billingsgate was a general market until when an Act of Parliament made it a fish market.

The population of London rose from about , in to , in The fashionable suburbs spread north along Tottenham Court Road and north west to the village of Paddington. By growth had spread to Islington and Chelsea. In the east growth spread to Stepney, Ratcliffe, Limehouse and Wapping. In the south the city spread to Bermondsey, Rotherhithe, Walworth and Kennington. Several hospitals were founded in London in the 18th century including Westminster , Guys , St Georges , London and Middlesex Early in the 18th century London was severely affected by gin drinking.